5dd548679a8e81bda5ca4b23b9f1d148b8eede38bb8950cec2 AgroWiki : Online Agriculture Library

Monday, 27 March 2017

Agriculture Quiz - 1

1. Which Indian State is Popularly called as the "Egg bowl of India" ?

A. Karnataka

B. Andhra Pradesh

C. Tamil Nadu

B. Uttar Pradesh 

2. Which Indian State has highest Agriculture  area under Irrigation ?

A. Karnataka

B. Kerala

C. Punjab

D. Maharashtra

3. Which Indian State is popularly known as the 'Spice garden of India" ?

A. Maharashtra

B. Karnataka

C. Kerala

D. Tamil Nadu

4. The Great Bengal Famine of 1943 was caused by the Pathogen                               ?

A. Helminthosporium oryzae

B. Cercospora arachidicola

C. Phytopthora infetans

D. Bipolaris sorghicola

5. Which Indian State is Popularly known as the "Rice Bowl of  India" ?

A. Chattisgarh

B. Punjab

C. West Bengal

D. Andhra Pradesh

6. Who is called as the "Father of Green Revolution in the World" ?

A. P A Millardet

B. Dr M S Swaminathan

C. Norman Ernest Borlaug

D. Vasily Dokuchaev

7. The great "Irish Famine" that caused over 1 million deaths was caused by the pathogen               ?

A. Phytopthora infestans

B. Plasmodium falciparum

C. Erisiphae sps

D. podosphaera xanthii 

8. Which Indian city is known as the "Tea city of India" ?

A. Darjeeling

B. Dibrugarh

C. Trivandrum

D. Nilgiris

9. Which English Agriculturist is known as the "Father of Tillage"?

A. Vasily Dokuchaev

B. Authur  Young

C. Jethro Tull

D. Adam Smith

10. Which Country is the largest producer of Silk in the World ?

A. India

B. China


D. Japan

For answers Click Here
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Thursday, 5 January 2017

Economic Value of a Tree

Professor T.M Das from the University of Calcutta was the first person who tried to estimate the monetary value of a Tree. His paper was published in Indian Biologist, Vol XI, No. 1-2, 1979. By considering all the outputs and natural resources provided by a Tree Prof T.M. Das has estimated the "Value of a Tree that Lives for 50 years" in monetary terms.

According to Professor T.M Das, a Tree that lives for 50 years: 

  • Generates Oxygen worth $ 31,250.
  • Prevents Soil Erosion worth $ 31,500
  • Creates $ 62,000 worth of Air Pollution control.
  • Provides home to Animals, Birds, and Insects worth $ 31,250
  • Recycles $ 37,500 Worth of Water.
  • Summing all these values, the total value of a tree that lives for 50 years is $ 193,250. This is roughly around Rs. 1,30,00,000 i.e Rs. 1.3 crores.
This Figure does not include the value of the Shade, Timber, Flowers, Fruits and other natural resources provided by the Tree. This gives us another reason to stop cutting trees down.

Imagine If Trees gave free WiFi, we'd all be planting trees but too bad they only give us Oxygen and we all now the fact that we can survive without WiFi but not without Oxygen. It is impossible to obtain the exact figure of the number off trees cut down per year in the world but based on few theories, an attempt made by the environmental experts, it is assumed that around 3 to 6 billion trees are cut down every year all around the world. This has to be stopped since "the forests are the lungs of Earth", there end would mean our end.

Conclusion : Stop cutting Trees . Plant more trees . Save Our Planet

"Key to generate a Green Planet is in Our Hands".

Sunday, 18 December 2016

Organic Farming Vs Conventional Farming

Organic Farming

Organic farming is the traditional method of farming which has been practiced in India since ancient times , organic farming primarily aims at  cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes  and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco-friendly pollution free environment. The main advantage of organic farming is it conserves the soil health by soil erosion, encouraging soil microbial activity and enables the farmers to use the soil for a long time.

Definitions of Organic Farming

Organic farming is also called natural farming, chemical free farming.

Definition by FAOOrganic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”.

Definition by US Dept of Agriculture : organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc) and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection.

General Definition: In general Organic Farming can be defined as an integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity whilst, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones.

Advantages of Organic Farming:

  • Organic Farming reduces the cost of cultivation up to 30 percent since the cost incurred on the fertilizers and plant protection chemicals can be omitted, besides organic farming is proven to be more profitable than conventional farming when adopted the right farming practice.
  • Organic Farming conserves soil fertility for a long time by maintaining organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity and thus enabling the farmer to use the soil for a long time.
  • Organic farming promotes ecological balance as it has a positive effect on ecosystem supporting the wildlife apart from providing safe pasture lands for grazing.
  • Organic Farming is not only beneficial for farmers but it has also proved useful for the dairy industry. Cattle feed from organic farmlands have been found to be less prone to diseases and they yield more milk. These are definitely good signs for a consumer of these dairy products from the health perspective and for a dairy organization from the profit perspective. 
  • Products or foodstuff produced from organic farming neither contain any sort of artificial flavor or preservatives nor do they contain any harmful chemicals and the food produced from organic farming are found to be tastier than conventional farming.
  • The original nutritional content of food is preserved due to the absence of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
  • The soil is the most important component in farming and organic farming preserves soil by reducing soil erosion up to a large extent.
  • Consumption of products obtained from organic farming minimizes the risk of physical ailments such as heart attacks. Scientific studies have proven that organic foods are healthier than the inorganic ones.

Disadvantages of Organic Farming
  • Yields obtained by Organic farming are found to be relatively lower when compared to the yields of Conventional farming.
  • The products of Organic farming are relatively more expensive than the products of Conventional farming.
  • Organic Farming is Labour Intensive Farming.

Conventional Farming

As of now, there is no definite definition for conventional farming. In General conventional farming can be described as an external input oriented and input intensive type of farming which mainly concentrates on increasing the productivity of a given land by application of artificial fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. 
Conventional farming was not practiced until the mid-nineteenth century, the main cause for the widespread of conventional farming was the Green Revolution which was initiated by Dr. Norman Ernest Borlaug.

Advantages of Conventional Farming 

  • The yields obtained through conventional farming are high compared to organic farming hence conventional farming is  helpful in feeding the growing population.
  • Conventional farming is less labor intensive.
  • Products of Conventional farming are cheaper when compared to Organic Farming.

Disadvantages of  Conventional Farming

  • Land Exhaustion: Constant application of Chemical fertilizers gradually reduces the fertility of land and thereby reducing the productive capacity of the soils also due to the indiscriminate use chemical fertilizers, the natural fertility of the soil is lost.
  • Continuous use of Chemicals on the soils results in soil compaction, soil erosion, salinization, decrease in the water holding capacity of soils which affects the overall productive capacity of soils.
  • Overuse of the chemicals also causes the death of the beneficial microorganisms in the soil and thereby decreasing the natural soil biological activities.
  • Application of pesticides also kills beneficial insects which help plants in many ways like pollination etc.
  • Another major disadvantage of conventional farming is that conventional farming is hazardous to the environment, Animals and humans as it is associated with environmental pollution.

Organic Farming or Conventional Farming

As of the present situation, the primary emphasis has to be given to the productivity of the lands since it is the only possible means by which we can meet the food requirements of our growing population.With the decrease in the area under cultivation are degrading  and lands losing fertility, we are failing to produce enough food to  full fill the hunger of the growing populous of the globe. This inverse relation between the Population growth and Food production gives rise to a dilemma, that is, increasing food production per unit land in a given time is the only way through which we can meet the food requirements of all the people of the world, But this is not possible through Organic Farming  since the yield obtained under organic Farming is found to be much lesser than Conventional farming. the productivity of a given land can only be increased by following conventional farming.
This situation where we are stuck between two choices is the Dilemma we are facing.

→ If we go for Organic farming, we will not be able to meet the food requirements of the globe but we can maintain ecological balance as well a strive towards maintaining a healthy sustainable future.

→ If we choose Conventional farming, then we might be able to full fill the food requirements of the globe up to a certain extent. But there is a big list of the ill effects caused by Conventional farming on the Soil, Environment, Animals, and Humans.

So the final question before is Organic Farming or Conventional Farming:

We have listed some possible answers for the question above:

1. If you choose Conventional Farming: 
  • Limited use of the fertilizers and plant protection chemicals or use of the chemicals according to the recommended dosages might help in reducing the ill effects of the chemicals on the environment.
  • Decreasing the intensity of any resource that is used in production process while trying to make the efficient utilization of the available resources.
  • We can also try integrating Organic and Conventional farming so as to minimize the pollution and at the same time maximize the food production.

2. If you choose Organic Farming

  • Try to intensify the farming practices by applying more organic fertilizers and following right cropping Systems (cropping pattern + management). Following crop rotation, cultivate legumes after cereals, intercropping crops which are beneficial to each other or less competitive towards each other.
  • Incorporate  more biofertilizers like Azotobacter, Azospirullum.
  • Timely and efficient management of events and available resources. Example: 
  1. Taking up sowing and weeding operations at right times. Ex: sowing of Boro Paddy must be done during December-January.
  2. If only one irrigation is available then irrigation should be given during the most critical stage of irrigation of the particular crop. Ex: In the case of Wheat the most critical stage of irrigation is the Crown Root initiation stage which is after 21 days after sowing. So if only one irrigation is available then, irrigation must be given during CRI stage in case of Wheat.
By following these steps the yields can be increased up to a certain extent if not up to expected level but this can be covered by the positive effects of organic farming on the Soil and environment.
In addition to these, studies conducted by researchers from a few reputed universities have found that organic farming has outyielded conventional farming.

In this context, Sikkim has inspired the whole nation to go back to its roots by becoming the first fully organic state in India and also have managed to successfully expand its Agrarian economy.

Conclusion: Organic Farming holds Key to a Healthy Sustainable future.

Saturday, 10 December 2016

Being Organic

Advantages of organic farming

Even though Green Revolution in India initiated prosperous growth in the food sector making us self-sufficient , it has deprived us of the holistic Organic culture which our farmers have practiced for centuries . It has also made us subsidy dependent and cheap chemical and electricity users wiping out the natural predators , exhausting groundwater and curbing the creation of healthier gene-pool.

Many states pioneered in the production of  Paddy, Wheat and cotton production levels by using plant protection chemicals which shot up nearly thirty-five times. However, we soon discovered the detrimental effects on the healthy life caused by extreme conventional farming. Most farmers either use the wrong chemical or overuse the chemicals and harvest the crops immediately after spraying.

It is estimated that only 10 percent of the sprayed pesticides reaches the pests and the rest 90 percent
enters the ecosystem contaminating the water and air and disturbing the natural Flora and Fauna.
Farmers of India take the least precaution to cover their body while spraying chemicals, some of them even reuse the containers of the chemicals to store food items.
Adulterated chemicals pose unique problems in farming, perpetually increasing the cost of production and mounting up losses. Pesticide residues in farm products have reduced demand for Indian foods in international markets.

Sikkim has inspired the whole nation to go back to its roots by becoming the first fully organic state in India.

Sikkim's Organic mission has become a success story after a decade of people's involvement in and strong political will. Farmers who embraced the ideology unanimously then, now earn 20 percent more than they did earlier,. Many of them have turned exporters.  Eco-tourism and more active participation by youngsters have evoked more business interest in the state from across the country.

States like Kerala, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh are all in a race to become the health capitals of the country taking their development close to nature. In Gods own country - Kerala, massive policy changes have been initiated for the well-being of the general populace and the environment have been initiated in the wake of several cases of Central Nervous System disorders caused due to heavy Endosulphan spray on Cashew plantations in Kasargod.

In view of all these negative effects of the use of chemicals, it is necessary to practice organic farming.
Agriculture must never be external input oriented when there are so much of farm resources that can be used for farming. 
Organic farming holds remedy to eliminate poison in food chain ethically and also nullify escalating farmer suicide rates. waste to wealth conversion is another consequential effect of organic farming which bridges resource, energy, and nutrient management. Let us emulate the glory of Sikkim in every State of India. 

Advantages of Organic Farming

  • Organic Farming reduces the cost of cultivation up to  30 percent since the cost incurred on the fertilizers and plant protection chemicals can be omitted, besides organic farming is proven to be more profitable than conventional farming when adopted the right farming practice.
  • Organic Farming conserves soil fertility for a long time by maintaining organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity and thus enabling the farmer to use the soil for a long time.
  • Organic farming promotes ecological balance as it has a positive effect on ecosystem supporting the wildlife apart from providing safe pasture lands for grazing.
  • Organic Farming is not only beneficial for farmers but it has also proved useful for the dairy industry. Cattle feed from organic farmlands have been found to be less prone to diseases and they yield more milk. These are definitely good signs for a consumer of these dairy products from a health perspective and for a dairy organization from the profit perspective. 
  • Products or foodstuff produced from organic farming neither contain any sort of artificial flavor or preservatives nor do they contain any harmful chemicals and the food produced from organic farming are found to be tastier than conventional farming.
  • The original nutritional content of food is preserved due to the absence of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.
  • The soil is the most important component in farming and organic farming preserves soil by reducing soil erosion up to a large extent.
  • Consumption of products obtained from organic farming minimizes the risk of physical ailments such as heart attacks. Scientific studies have proven that organic foods are healthier than the inorganic ones.
On the overall, Organic agriculture sustains and enhances the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one individual. Hence Organic Farming is the key to a Healthier, Sustainable future.

Friday, 9 December 2016

The curse of Starvation Death and Farmers Suicide

Curse of starvation and reasons for farmers suicide

Every day we come across reports about deaths due to starvation as well as suicide by the farmers across the country . Though the country witnessed the green revolution resulting in excess food production , a large number of people in India are still suffering from hunger and farmers who are the backbone of the country are  undergoing traumatizing experience in the process of agricultural activities leading to ending their lives . All these are happening despite concerted efforts by the agricultural scientists and food experts to avert the evil .
If we look into the rate of farmers suicide in the country , on an average 47 farmers have committed suicide every single day in the past one and half decade , in India . Maharashtra , Karnataka , Andhra Pradesh are leading in respect of farmer's suicide in the country.

The farmers do not end their lives just because of any family feud or any incurable diseases , they are taking this extreme step of ending their lives leaving their dependents at lurch , purely because of financial distress , i.e unable to bear the burnt loans they have taken for agricultural activities.

The policies of the successive governments have not come to the rescue of the peasants who grow everything for sustaining the nation . Unlike industries , the farmers do not get support prices for their produces . They have to rely on the middlemen and get only a meager amount for their hard work , finally they end up caught in the big net of loans and when the loans grow into huge burden , they finally decide to commit suicide.

While lack of proper marketing infrastructure which enables the peasants to get reasonable price for their produces is one of the reasons , the absence of proper financial arrangement for them from the government is another cause for the growing distress among the farming folk of the country . It is a well known fact that majority of the poor people including farmers have to depend on private money lenders for their loan who generally charge high rate of interests leading to farmer's inability to repay it and losing their land other means of livelihood.

While on the one hand farmers who produces and supply food grains to the country are reeling under unending problems , the country is witnessing the "problem of plenty" amid  numerous deaths due to starvation. It is estimated that on an average, every 4 seconds a person dies due to starvation or hunger related problems and 21,000 people die everyday ., A number mothers die due to Anemia which is due to lack of nutrition , like wise thousands of children die everyday due to malnutrition . Deaths due to starvation has become very common in backward states like  Bihar , Kalahandhi is the best example for this where are even forced to eat mud bread  to satisfy their hunger.
At this time it is right to quote Mahatma Gandhi's quote " Leaving people to suffer from starvation is also a form of terrorism". Then what is the cause for these , is there not enough food grains to feed all the mouths in the country , the obvious answer is yes , though there has been increase in the production of food grains , we still are unable to sustain lives of the growing population. If we look into the current situation , we can observe that the population is increasing inversely to the agricultural production , even though we are producing enough food grains to feed all the people , about 120 to 160 lakh tonnes of the grains are being  spoiled every year due to lack of proper storing facilities. 

The Supreme court of India has suggested to the govt of India to distribute the food grains to the poor instead of storing them so that the food is not wasted and eaten by rodents , however the govt has tried taken an appropriate measure in this direction . The  FOOD SECURITY BILL which is ought ensure the right to food of the people by providing enough grains to people . According to renowned Agriculture Scientist Dr. M.S. Swaminathan , The National Food Security Bill is the last to convert Gandhiji's vision of hunger free India into reality . Mahatma Gandhi's desire was that the "God of Bread should be present in every hut in India". In this context , let us all hope that the administrators awake to the need of hour and strive to put an end to the curse of hunger and farmer's suicides.

Sunday, 4 December 2016

ಕೃಷಿ ಕುಸುರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕಾಣದ ಕೈಗಳು

role of women in agriulture

ಭಾರತ ಕೃಷಿ ಪ್ರದಾನ ದೇಶ, ಶೇಕಡ 60 ಭಾರತದ ಜನಸಂಖ್ಯೆ ಕೃಷಿಗೆ ಅವಲಂಬಿತವಾಗಿ ಜೀವನ ನಡೆಸುತ್ತಿದೆ. ನಾಡಿಗೆ ಅನ್ನವನ್ನು ನೀಡುವ ರೈತನೇ ದೇಶದ ಬೆನ್ನೆಲುಬು . ಮಣ್ಣಿಗೆ ಅನ್ನದಾತನ ಬೆವರಿನ ಹನಿಗಳ ಸ್ಪರ್ಶದ ನಂತರವೇ ಬೆಳೆಯೊಳಗಿನ ಕಾಳಾಗಿ ಮಣ್ಣು ಮಾತಾಡಬಲ್ಲುದು, ಅಪಾರ ಜನಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯ ಈ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕ್ಕೆ ಅನ್ನ ನೀಡಲು ಸಾದ್ಯವಾಗುವುದು, ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಟಿತ ಕಾರ್ಖಾನೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ, ಮಹಾನ್ ಮಹಲುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ತಯಾರಿಸಲಾಗದಂತಹ ಆಹಾರವನ್ನು ಹೊಲವೆಂಬ ನೆಲದಿಂದ ಬೆಳೆತೆಗೆಯುವ ಮನುಕುಲದ ಮಹಾದೀಪ, ರೈತನಿಗೆ ಬೆನ್ನೆಲುಬಾಗಿ, ಕೃಷಿಯ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲೂ ತನ್ನ ಕುಶಲತೆಯನ್ನು ಬೆರೆಸುವ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಪಾತ್ರ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹತ್ತ್ರವಾದ್ದುದಾಗಿದೆ."ಯಾವುದೇ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರದ ಪರಿಸ್ಥಿಯನ್ನು ಆ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯರಿಗಿರುವ ಸ್ಥಾನಮಾಂಗಳನ್ನು ನೋಡಿಯೇ ಹೇಳಬಹುದು" ಎಂದು "ಜವಾಹರ್ ಲಾಲ್ ನೆಹರು" ಅವರ ಮಾತುಗಳಿಂದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಮಹತ್ಟವಾದ ಸ್ಥಾನ, ಸಮಾಜ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ನೀಡಬೇಕಾದ ಗೌರವಗಳ ಬಗೆಗೆ ಅರಿವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ನಮ್ಮೆಲ್ಲರ ಜೀವನದಲ್ಲಿ, ತಾಯಿಯಾಗಿ, ಸೋದರಿಯಾಗಿ, ಮಡದಿಯಾಗಿ, ಮಗಳಾಗಿ, ಗೆಳತಿಯಾಗಿ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಪಾತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಸಮರ್ಪಕವಾಗಿ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುವ ಮಹಿಳೆಯು, ದೇಶದ ಕೃಷಿಯ ಸುಂದರ ಕುಸುರಿಯನ್ನು ನೇಯುತ್ತಿರುವುದು , ಕೃಷಿಯನ್ನು ಮುನ್ನಡೆಸುತ್ತಿರುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಬಹುಪಾಲು ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಆಪಾರ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಡಗಿದೆ. ಅಬಲೆಯಲ್ಲ-ಸಬಳೆಯೆಂದು ನಿರೂಪಿಸಲು, ಹೆಣ್ಣು, ಕೃಷಿಯಿಂದ ಹಿಡಿದು, ಗಗನಯಾತ್ರಿಯವರೆಗಿನ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಹೆಮ್ಮೆಯಿಂದ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಳೇ.

"Women Feed the World" ಎನ್ನುವ ಆಂಗ್ಲ ಘೋಷಣೆ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಉನ್ನತ ಜವಾಬ್ಧಾರಿಯನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವುದನ್ನು ಹೇಳುತ್ತದೆಯಾದರೂ, ಪರಿಶಯ ತಕ್ಕು ಮನರೆಯಾಗಲಿ, ವೇತನವಾಗಲಿ ದೊರೆಯುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ ಕಹಿಯಾದರೂ ಸತ್ಯವಾಗಿದೆ. ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ ಶೇಕಡ 80 ರಷ್ಟು ಮಹಿಳೆಯರು ಕೃಷಿಯ ಕೆಲಸಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ತೊಡಗಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಬೀಜ ಬಿತ್ತುವುದರಿಂದ ಹಿಡಿದು, ಬೆಲೆಯೂ ಕೊಯ್ಲಾಗಿ, ಕಾಳು ಒಕ್ಕಣೆ ಮಾಡುವವರೆಗೂ ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಪಾತ್ರವಿದೆ. ನೇಗಿಲು ಹಿಡಿದು ಹೊಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಉಳುವ ರೈತ ಗಂಡಸಾದರೂ, ಎತ್ತುಗಳನ್ನು ಗದ್ದೆಯ ಬದಿಗೆ ಕೊಂಡೊಯ್ದು ನೂಗ-ನೇಗಿಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಏರಿಸಲು ಸಹಾಯಕಳಾಗೂವುದ್ದಲ್ಲದೆ, ಉಳುಮೆಯ ಸಾಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಲು ಇನ್ನೂ ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ ಉಳುಮೆಗೆ ಹೂರಿ-ಕೋನಗಳು ಎಲ್ಲಡೆ ಇರುವಾಗ ನೇಗಿಲಿಗೆ ಹೆಗಲನ್ನು ಒಡ್ಡುವ ಕೆಲಸವನ್ನೂ ಸಹ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಾಳೆ.
ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ದುಡಿಮೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಸೂಕ್ಷ್ಮತೆ, ಕೆಲಸದ ಗ್ರಹಿಕೆ, ನೈಪುಣ್ಯತೆ, ತಾಳ್ಮೆ, ಶ್ರೆದ್ದೆ, ಕೃಷಿಯ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ತಣ್ನ್ಡೆಯಾದ ಪ್ರಭಾವವನ್ನು ಬೀರಿದೆ. ಕಳೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆಯ ಕಾರ್ಯ ಹೆಣ್ಣಿಗೆ ಮೀಸಲಾಗಿದೆ ಎನ್ನುವಷ್ಟರ ಮಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಕಳೆಯ ಕೆಲಸವನ್ನು ಇಂದು ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಳೆ . ಕಸರತ್ತಿನ ಆಟದಂತೆ ಗೂಚರಿಸುವ ಪೈರು ಕೊಯ್ಲು ಆದಮೇಲೆ ಭತ್ತವನ್ನು ಕಳೆದು ಹುಲ್ಲು ವಕ್ಕಣೆ ಮಾಡುವವರು ಮಹಿಳೆಯರೇ. ಗದ್ದೆಯ ಪೈರನ್ನು ಕೊಯ್ದು ಸೂಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಟ್ಟಿ ಅದನ್ನು ಬಿಡಿಸಿ ಇಡುವ ಕಲಾವಂತಿಕೆ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ಸಿದ್ಧವಾಗಿದೆ.ಧಾನ್ಯ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಣೆ ಮತ್ತು  ಒಕ್ಕಣೆಯನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುವಾಗ ಧಾನ್ಯವನ್ನು ತೂರುವ, ಗಾಳಿಯ ಗುರುತಿಸಿ ಕಸವನ್ನು ತೂರಿ ಕಾಳನ್ನು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸುವ, ಹಗೇವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಧಾನ್ಯವನ್ನು ತುಂಬುವ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳನ್ನು ಮಹಿಳೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಳೆ. ಮಾಡುವ ಕೆಲಸದಲ್ಲಿ ತನಗೆಷ್ಟು ಮಾನ್ಯತೆ ಸಿಗುತ್ತದೆ ಎನ್ನುವುದನ್ನು ಲೆಕ್ಕಿಸದೆ, ಕುಟುಂಬದ ಹಿತವನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸುವ ಮನಃಸ್ಥಿತಿ, ಗಂಡಿಗಿಂತ ಹೆಣ್ಣಿಗೆ ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಎಂದರೆ ತಪ್ಪಾಗಲಾರದು.
ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾರ್ಯ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವ ಭಾರತೀಯ ಮಹಿಳೆಯನ್ನು ನಾಲ್ಕು ತೆರನಾಗಿ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಬಹುದು.

1.ಆಹಾರ ಉತ್ಪಾದಕರು   (Independent producers)
2.ಕೃಷಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳ ಪಾಳುಧಾರರು  (Agricultural partners)
3.ಕೃಷಿ ಗೃಹಿಣಿ  (Farm home women)
4.ಕೃಷಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಹಾಯಕರು (Agricultural Helpers).

ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಪಾತ್ರ ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಅವಶ್ಯಕ್ವಾಗಿದ್ದರು, ಅನೇಕ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಂದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಋಷಿ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ.

  • ಕಳೆ ತೆಗೆಯುವುದು, ಕಾಳು ಹನಸು ಮಾಡುವುದು, ಸಸಿ ನೆಡುವುದು ಮುಂತಾದ ಪ್ರಮೂಕ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಕೆಲಸಗಳೆಂದು ಭಾವಿಸಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯೇ ಈ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸಬೇಕೆಂದು ನಿರೀಕ್ಷಿಸುವುದು.
  • ಬಹುತೀಕ ಕೃಷಿ ಭೂಮಿಗೆ ಪುರುಷನೇ ಎಜಮಾನನಾಗಿರುವುದು.
  • ಮಹಿಳೆ ಕೆಲಸಗಾರರಿಗೆ ಕಡಿಮೆ ವೇತನ.
  • ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೃಷಿ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸದೆ ಇರುವುದು.
  • ಯಾವುದೇ ಕೃಷಿ ತರಬೇತಿ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ರಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕಡಿಮೆ ಹಾಜರಾತಿ.
  • ಪುರುಷ ಕೆಂದ್ರಿತ ತಂತ್ರಜ್ಞಾನಗಳು.
  • ಅಪೌಷ್ಟಿತ ಮಹಿಳೆಯರು ಇನ್ನೂ ಅನೇಕ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಂದ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೃಷಿ ಕೆಲಸ ಪುರುಷನ ಕೃಷಿ ಕೆಲಸಗಳಷ್ಟು ಮಾನ್ಯತೆ ಪಡೆದಿಲ್ಲ.

ಕೃಷಿ ವಿಸ್ತರಣಾ ಕಾರ್ಯಕ್ರಮಗಳಲ್ಲಿ, ಮಹಿಳಾ ಭಾಗವಹಿಸುವಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿಸುವುದರಿಂದ, ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಸೇವಾಮನೋಭಾವ, ಹಣ ಉಳಿಸುವಂತಹ ಗುಣ, ಸಹಕಾರ ಮುಂತಾದ ಕಾರಣಗಳಿಂದ ಯಶಸ್ವಿಯಾಗಿರುವ, ಸ್ತ್ರೀಶಕ್ತಿ ಸ್ವಸಹಾಯ ಸಂಘಗಳ  ಮೂಲಕ, ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯನ್ನು ಕೃಷಿಯ ಪ್ರಗತಿಯನ್ನು ಸಾಧಿಸಬಹುದು.
ಕೃಷಿ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಕೇಂದ್ರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳಾ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿಗಳನ್ನು ನೀಮಿಸುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ, ಗ್ರಾಮೀಣ ಪ್ರದೇಶ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯರಿಗೆ ಸಹಕಾರಿ ಆಗುತ್ತದೆ.
ತೊಟ್ಟಲೊಳಗಿನ ಮಗಿವಿನಿಂದ ಹಿಡಿದು, ಕೊಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಹಸುವಿನ ಹಸಿವನ್ನು, ನೀರು, ನೋಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೃಷಿ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ. ಮನೆಯಲ್ಲೂ, ಹೊಲದಲ್ಲೂ ದುಡಿಯುವ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ಸಹಾಯಕಾರಿಯಾಗಲು ಕೃಷಿ ಯಂತ್ರೋಪಕರಣಗಳನ್ನು ತಯಾರಿಸುವಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಗತಿ ಹೊಂದಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ.
ಕೃಷಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ರೈತ ಬೇಸತ್ತು, ಜೀವನವೇ ದುರ್ಬರವೆನಿಸಿ ಆತ್ಮಹತ್ಯಾ ವಿಚಾರಕ್ಕೆ ಕೈ ಹಾಕಿದಾಗ ಅರ್ಧಾಂಗಿಯಾಗಿ ಮಾಣೂಸ್ಟೈರ್ಯ ತುಂಬುವ, ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ ನೇಗಿಲಿಗೆ ಎತ್ತಾಗಿ ದುಡಿದು, ಬಿದ್ದು ಹೋದ ಬದುಕನ್ನು ಮತ್ತೆ ಕಟ್ಟಿಕೊಡುವ ಗಟ್ಟಿಗಿತ್ತಿ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಮನೊಬಲವನ್ನು ಮೆಚ್ಚಬೇಕಾಗಿದೆ. ಅಂತಹ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಗೆ ಬಿರುದು, ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ, ಸನ್ಮಾನ ಬೇಕಾಗಿರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಸುಂದರ ನೇಯುತ್ತಿರುವುದರ ಹಿಂದಿರುವ ಆ ಕೃಷಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯ ಕೈಗಳ ಪರಿಶ್ರಮವ ನಾವು ಅರಿತು ಸಹಕಾರಿಯಾಗಿ ನಿಂತರೆ ಸಾಕಲ್ಲವೇ.??

Tuesday, 29 November 2016

Interesting Facts about Agriculture

10 interesting facts about agriculture

  • The practice of Agriculture by the humans dates back to 7,500 BC and the first ever crops cultivated by man were Wheat and Barley.
  • Only 5 percent of water absorbed by plants is retained within them , rest 95 percent is lost through transpiration and guttation .
  • The largest tomato plant in the world is the plant that is in Walt Disney's experimental greenhouse in Lake Buena Vista , Florida , it has set a Guinness World Record by producing 32,000 tomatoes in a single harvest weighing about 522 kg.
  • We all know that an Apple a day will keep you away from doctor , but did you know that "One Guava is equal to four Apples".
  • If you think crops can only be grown in soil , then think again , you are wrong , Plant scientists have successfully developed a technique in which plants are grown in air or moist environment  and the technique is called "Aerophonics".
  • Did you know that it takes 5000 liter of water to produce 1 kg of paddy.
  • A Pomato is a cross-bred crop obtained by grafting Potato plant with Tomato plant.
  • Of all the total population involved in agriculture in India , 79% are women.
  • Cultivation for fruits began around 6000 BC and the first fruit crop domesticated by humans was Fig.
  • How many varieties of rice have you tasted , there are more than 60,000 known varieties of rice in the world. 

Monday, 28 November 2016

Sikkim Organic Mission

Sikkim has inspired the whole nation to go back to its roots by  becoming the first fully organic state in India. With a population of about 6 lakh, Sikkim is the least populated state and it is mainly an Agrarian economy . The main crops cultivated in Sikkim are Rice ,  maize, millet, wheat, barley, oranges, tea, and cardamom. Despite the state's poor topography and transport system, Sikkim has successfully managed to expand its agriculture .
In 2003 The state's Chief minister Shri Pawan Chamling  initiated the Sikkim organic mission and the state has achieved complete chemical free environment becoming India's first organic state in 2015.  Over 70,000 hectares of the farm have been converted and certified as organic lands, this has improved their soil structure and fertility also reduced their cost of production by 30 percent since the cost incurred on synthetic chemicals is omitted. Besides these, their yields have leaped up over years and currently Sikkim is one of the major supplier of organic products in the country. In addition to these, by following organic farming they are promoting Subsistence farming, conserving their soil structure and fertility and conserving their environment as well. The states unemployment has decreased completely and Sikkim has achieved considerable progress in its economy since 2003 and now it has joined hands with organic states of other countries like the United States.

How did Sikkim become full Organic:

The state's Organic mission was initiated in 2003 by the Honorable Chief minister of  Sikkim  Shri Pawan Chamling. He stressed the importance of organic farming, he promised the farmers to provide exclusive retail outlets of organic products and also added a small portion about the organic farming in the textbooks of all schools.

Sikkim department of Agriculture prepared a concept paper called  Going for Organic Farming in Sikkim" and also an action plan in 2003 with main objectives : Promoting organic farming, discouraging the use of chemicals, setting up marketing facilities for organic products and preparing policies regarding organic farming. 
Sikkim State Organic board was also constituted in the same year to highlight and prescribe the organic standards of farms. 

Discouraging the use of  Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides : 

The state withdrew the subsidy on the chemical fertilizers .From 2006-07 onwards transport and taking care of endowment and commission to retailers were additionally pulled back. All the while, the Government embraced a seven-year plan to wipe out the utilization of substance composts and to bit by bit supplant them with natural sources.

Resource Mobilizing :

1. Making of provincial manure units at farmstead.

2. Setting up of vermicompost units 
Foundation of biofertilizer unit 

3. Upgradation of soil testing research center 

4. Revision of acidic soil 

5. Organic certification.

Two Government ranches at Nazitam (East Sikkim) and Mellidara (South Sikkim) were changed over to "Focal point of Excellence for Organic Farming" and vital research and versatile trials were begun to work out a fitting natural bundle of practices.

Development of Bio Villages:

To begin with physical stride towards the transformation of Sikkim agribusiness to organic was the reception of bio-town program utilizing EM (effective microorganisms ) innovation. Beginning from 2003-04 till 2009-10, 396 villages were adopted as bio-villages by the Department of Food Security and Agriculture Development as a team with Maple Orgtech Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata. Around 14,000 ranchers and 14,000 sections of land of land in all the 4 areas of Sikkim were profited under the program.

The State has set up well-equipped soil testing facility with an annual capacity of 10,000 soil sample analysis. During the six years, more than 46,993 soil samples were analyzed and more than 46,000 soil health cards were issued.

Finally, with combined efforts of the Government and farmers, Sikkim finally achieved its goal of complete chemical free farming . The state was announced as the county's first fully organic state on January 18, 2015, and it has made every other state look back towards it and has inspired many other states to turn into organic.

 " Let us emulate the glory of Sikkim in every State of India". 

Friday, 25 November 2016

Green Revolution : A Battle against World Hunger

Norman e borlaug is the father of green revolution

During the 19th century , the population grew geometrically while Agriculture grew at a linear rate and there came a time of dire food shortage with no visible solutions to feed the world's growing populace . It war was the period when Second world war had broke out, many people died due to starvation mainly in the developing nations and the countries affected by the Second World War , therefore Agriculture needed a transformation in order sustain the food requirements of the growing population. While the world fought battles , Dr. Norman Borlaug "Father of Green Revolution " and Agriculture's greatest spokesperson  was fighting a very different kind of battle , a battle against hunger and his weapon of choice was "Biotechnology". He revolutionized the agricultural industry through his remarkable work in Plant Breeding. His work in the field of Agriculture saved billions of life and he was awarded The Noble Peace Prize in 1970 for his remarkable. Dr Norman Borlaug is remembered for saving a billion lives because if not for his work millions of  people would have lost their lives due to severe food shortage particularly in developing countries thus Dr Norman Ernest Borlaug is forever known as "The Father of Green Revolution".

Green Revolution

The term  Green Revolution was used for the first time by former director of US agency for international development William Gaud to indicate the productivity based improvement in food production mainly in Wheat and Rice, Green Revolution began in 1943 , when plant geneticist Norman Borlaug and his team of researchers arrived on Mexican soils , the main components of Green revolution  were High Yielding varieties , chemical fertilizers and plant protection chemicals .  Dr Norman Borlaug believed that Biotechnology was the only means through which the Agricultural productivity could be increased , his goal was to improve the agriculture techniques and biotechnological methods which in turn would improve the yields and thus the living standards of the people of  developing countries , By creating new genetically modified strains of Wheat , Rice , Maize and other crops Borlaug planned to win his battle against the world hunger  .  He developed a new strains of dwarf , disease resistant  high yielding varieties of Wheat , he also created a new  Wheat-Rye hybrid called Triticale which yielded 2 to 3 times more than the local varieties and this technique was later on adopted to develop new varieties of high-yielding rice , this resulted in rapid expansion of agriculture and the yields of food grains shot up nearly 3 to 4 times  . Thus The Green Revolution made agriculture more reliable and more efficient and  thereby made  many developing countries nearly self-sustain.
After the success in Mexico , Borlaug traveled to India and Pakistan in 1961 . Borlaug applied the Biotechnological techniques and spread its knowledge in those countries which resulted in the increase in the productivity , Hence India became self-sustain and today it is one of the most successful rice producing and exporting nations in the world. The Green Revolution was also spread to numerous hungry nations helping them to expand their agriculture industry .

Norman Ernest Borlaug

Norman Borlaug, with his innovation, hoped to save the life of millions , if not billions of people , he revolutionized the trend in Agriculture giving the world the strength to battle against hunger. Borlaug's research was also symbolic of the importance agriculture had gained in the global community .
Borlaug received his B.Sc. Biology in 1937 and Ph.D. in plant pathology and genetics from the University of Minnesota in 1942. He was appointed as a research scientist in Mexico for improvement of Wheat , during this time he developed new dwarf and disease resistant and high yielding varieties of wheat. Amid the mid-twentieth century, Borlaug drove the presentation of these high-yielding varieties consolidated with cutting edge horticultural creation systems to Mexico, Pakistan, and India. Therefore, Mexico turned into a net exporter of wheat by 1963. Somewhere around 1965 and 1970, wheat yields almost shot up three times  in Pakistan and India, incredibly enhancing the sustenance security in those countries. These modern techniques were also adopted in other crops which resulted in a tremendous increase in the yields of the food grains especially Rice , Wheat, and Maize. This series of progress that took place in the field of agriculture is was forever known as The Green Revolution and Dr. Norman Borlaug is called as the father of Green Revolution for the green revolution was the child of his efforts , Norman Borlaug saved billions of lives from starvation and showed them the new path to self sustain themselves , hence in recognition of his honest contribution towards the food supply , he was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1970 and he has received honors from 44 universities .  Borlaug served as chief of the Inter-American Food Crop Program (1960–63) and as the executive of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico City, from 1964 to 1979. In 1986 Borlaug created the World Food Prize to respect people who have added to enhancing the accessibility and nature of sustenance around the world.
Dr. Norman died at the age of 95 on 12th September 2009 due to Lymphoma.


- Norman Borlaug

Wednesday, 23 November 2016

Smart touch to Agriculture

Smart touch to agriculture , online marketing is the solution for all the problems of farmers

Today the Primary problem faced by the Indian Farmers is the absence of adequate marketing structures for marketing of  agricultural produce. In the present situation , the producer's share of the returns obtained by marketing the produce is very low. This is because the farmers are not provided with the adequate marketing services and hence leaving them to depend on local traders or middlemen for marketing their crops. In most cases , farmers are either convinced or forced to sell their produce to these mediators since they are not left any other choice. This happens mostly due to lack of transport facilities , inadequate storage structures and also a lack of knowledge of the current marketing prices of the goods. In the case of perishable crops , the produce must either be marketed quickly or should be stored in proper storage godowns shortly after harvesting . But most of the rural farmers of India are below poor and do not have access to this facilities hence they are left with no other choice except to sell their produce to the local traders or middlemen who cheat farmers with their words and convince them into selling their produce at cheaper rates .After obtaining the goods from farmers they, later on, make a profit out of it by selling them at relatively higher prices. In some cases, farmers are not aware of the current mandi prices of the crops hence are tricked by the mediators. In our country especially in the Northern part of India, an average of  20 to 24 percent of the crops grown by the farmers are sold within in the village itself.
In India,  more than 22 percent of the farmers are below poverty line, they depend on private money lenders for  generally charge high rates of interest . As a result of distress sale of the produce due to the above-mentioned reasons , the farmers aren't even getting back their invested money . So unable to pay back the money they have borrowed, farmers are taking the extreme decision of ending their lives ,If we look into the rate of farmers suicide in the country , 5,650 farmer suicides were recorded in the year 2014 and the highest recorded rate was in the year 2004 when 18,241 farmers committed suicide , in India . Maharashtra , Karnataka , Andhra Pradesh are leading in respect of farmer's suicide in the country. So it's clear that distress sale of the agricultural produce is the main reason for farmers suicide in India.
The farmers do not end their lives just because of any family feud or any incurable diseases , they are taking this extreme step of ending their lives leaving their dependents at lurch , purely because of financial distress which is caused mainly due to unavailability of marketing and post-harvest management facilities. 
All these are happening despite concerted efforts by the agricultural scientists and food experts to improve the condition of farmers but still, the rate farmer' suicide has not come down. 
Despite the constant efforts by the Government and Agriculture scientist , the farmers are unable to sell the produce without any hindrances. lack of awareness about the improvements in the field of agriculture among the farmers is also a major reason for this. So what may be the possible solution for this problem ?. 

Smart agriculture is a term that we might have seen in the recent magazines , so what is this smart agriculture. The obvious answer is that it is the key to all the marketing related issues of the farmers.

Today we can find numerous websites that are active online like Amazon , Flipkart , eBay , Snapdeal etc. While these websites are mainly focussed mostly on non-agricultural goods , there are a good number of websites which have come up and are currently active and providing services to the farmers. Websites like IFFCO , KISSAN MARKET , CROFARM , FARMILY which have been set up mainly with the aim of helping farmers market their produce without any distress and intervention by the middlemen.These web services act as a bridge between the farmers and the consumers , they  directly link a farmer to a consumer. Some online agricultural baskets like Ninja cart and Big Basket directly purchase the produce from farmers directly at ongoing market prices  and then sell them to the consumers .The websites also provide complete updates of ongoing market prices of the agricultural commodities so that both farmers and consumers are benefitted.Through these ,the farmers can stop relying on the local traders and sell their produce directly to the consumers at reasonable prices and consumers can get fresh goods at reasonable prices as well and thus eliminate the intervention of middlemen in the process. Few of the websites like FARMILY also provide storage facilities and loan facilities to farmers who need financial assistance. But the problem is that most of the farmers are not aware of these online services and still depend on the local traders , it is important that some measure has to be taken to educate the farmers about Online marketing of agricultural services because clearly e-marketing of agricultural produce holds key to all the marketing related problems of our farmers.

Online Marketing of Agricultural Produce

How does this work , usually the farmers are required to register with the website by providing the necessary details , likewise retailers or consumers also must register with the website.  After registration farmers can post ads containing the details about their crops , price, and quantity similarly consumers can post ads containing details of their requirement and budget. The website then reviews the ads and then link the farmers and consumers whose requirements match. Few online agri stores like Ninjacart and Bigbasket purchase produce from farmers at reasonable prices and then sell them to the consumers. In this process, the farmers can sell produce without any intervention by the mediators and also overcome the transport and storage problems.For the ease of farmers these websites also provide services to the farmers through android based applications which are available for download in Google Playstore for free. These apps also provide updates of all the mandi prices and latest updates of marketing prices

Few Agricultural websites for  Farmers : 

1. National Agricultural Market : National Agriculture Market (NAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC  to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
The NAM Portal provides a single window service for all APMC related information and services. This includes commodity arrivals & prices, buy & sell trade offers, provision to respond to trade offers, among other services. While material flow (agriculture produce) continue to happen through mandis, an online market reduces transaction costs and information asymmetry.

2. Kissan Market : Kissan market is an online web portal which allows its member who has signed up with it to directly interact with the farmers or consumers. The farmers who are members can sell their produce by posting their crop and price which will be displayed on the site while the buyers can post ads of their requirements on the site and get a direct deal from the farmers . Thus this is a great way to eliminate the intrusion of middle man and helping the  farmers  to market their produce at the right price and even helping the consumers get their requirements at reasonable rates.

3. Farmily : Farmily is also a similar website like Kissan market allowing the direct contact of producers and consumers and thus minimizing the interruption of middlemen . With about 30,000 registered users Farmily has won second prize in the best website of India competition organized by the association of Facebook and Internet.org. In addition to this, farmily also benefits the farmers by providing them loans and  storage godowns . The facility is also available on mobile , the farmily app is available in google playstore which can be used to avail all the facilities of farmily from your mobile.

Monday, 21 November 2016

Bangarada Manushya

bangarada manushya ,

ಬಂಗಾರದ ಮನುಷ್ಯ  

Bangarada manushya is a 1972 Kannada movie based on the story written by famous novelist TK Rama Rao , directed by Siddalingaiah and produced by R Lakshman and Gopal .
Padmashree  Dr .Raj Kumar who is the greatest and most popular actor of Kannada film industry has played the lead role  in the movie and it  is  a milestone in the Kannada film industry ,On the centenary of Indian cinema in April 2013, Forbes included Dr Raj kumar's performance in the film on its list, "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema".
 The movie is about how a well educated lad turns into a farmer and prospers in his life despite all the odds and oppositions in his way , the movie has many messages and morals and has inspired many  educated youth who have taken up agriculture instead of other jobs  and have seen great success. Every agriculturist  in the country must watch this movie at least once for this movie is based all about agriculture and it shows the fruits of farming in a very entertaining way . for those who are losing interest in agriculture and think farmers can't compete with doctors and engineers ,  just watch this movie and you will be surely convinced that farmers are no less than doctors and engineers and can live up to them. we can find many examples of people who are well educated but have taken up farming yet have achieved great success.

Watch Bangarada Manushya: full movie:


Dr Raj Kumar seen in the movie as Rajiv returns from the city to his native to visit his sister , but he is welcomed by the sad news of the death of his siter's husband . He then decides to stay with his sisters family as their was no one left to take care of his family . Rajiv was well educated but since he decided to stay in his village , he decides to take up agriculture but he will not have sufficient capitaal to start off   sot he  takes loan from the village head Rachutappa ( Balakrishna  ). He then starts of cultivating his two acre farm with the help of a friend and finally sees success. After he earns enough money he goes ahead and purchases 25 acres of land which initially is a burden land . Rajiv in-spite of  all the oppositions purchases the land and later turns it into a fertile land and cultivates it successfully , having earned a lot of money , he repays all the loan that he had earlier borrowed earns  , the application of modern technology in agriculture is shown and highlighted in these scenes .
The most popular song of the movie Kailagadhu endu kaikatti kulithare sung by PB Srinivas is played at these scenes . This song has mentions of famous Kannada proverbs like Kai Kesaradare bai mosaru , Kayakave Kailasa etc and its truly inspiring.

Impact of the movie :

Bangarada Manushya had a tremendous impact on people. Some city youth, inspired by the movie's central theme returning to one's ancestral village left their jobs, came back to their respective villages and took up agriculture.
The film had a deep social impact on the audience as well and there are many stories of people in the city going to villages and becoming farmers. The film also touched on very important topics like rural development, modern agricultural practices, co-operative movement, social unity, honesty, love and dedication. In the beginning of the movie, it shows the hardship of farmers and how much they have to toil in order to make ends meet. The movie subtly says that middle-class and working-class are the backbone of the country by showing the son of a rich village head as being a spoiled brat wasting his money in the city. One of the most important messages given in the movie is that, one should not waste time and money in trying to modernize/westernize themselves through a posh life style. One should be true to their identity and not try to become someone else. This theme struck a chord with the audience as Karnataka was one of the fast developing states in the country and there was a large migration from rural to urban areas.

Tuesday, 15 November 2016

Fruit Moulding

Fruit moulding , square shaped water melon
Did you know that fruits and vegetables can be moulded into desired shapes based on your fantasy , yes it is possible , by placing immature fruits and vegetables in plastic moulds and allowing them to mature inside the moulds , we can obtain fruits of various shapes depending on our requirement  , the fruit or vegetable as it matures gradually takes the shape of the plastic mold . The shape of the fruit or vegetable solely depends on the shape of the mould in which it is placed for maturing. Sources say that this technique  actually originated in Japan but currently Chinese are expanding this technique and turning it into a commercial business , A Chinese company called  Fruit mould  are offering already grown moulded fruits and vegetables of various shapes as per  the consumer's requirement  for sale , they  also provide  instructions and plastic moulds   for those who are  interested in growing fruit moulds in their garden . You can either purchase ready made moulded fruits or if you are interested in growing them by yourself you can buy the plastic moulds with instructions from the company. for more details visit the companies website Fruitmould.com

Moulding fruits was initially started so that the fruits could fit inside the refrigerators easily and  for the ease of cutting , but now it has turned into a commercial business as the demand for these fruits is increasing. Moulded fruits are desired mostly for aesthetic purposes and are available in few super markets , but  the cost of these moulded fruits are 3 to 4 times the cost of the normal ones since the cost and labor input for growing these crops is more compared to that of the regular fruits. Fruit mould  (Chinese fruit moulding company) is now shipping molded fruits and vegetables of various shapes based on the consumer's fantasy and also their plastic cases all over the world , so the irregularly shaped fruits are now accessible to everybody and anybody can grow it in their own garden , growing these kind of fruits in your garden would increase the aesthetic value of your garden and also will attract your children towards working in the garden. It also improves your skill since growing these type of crops requires skill and  patience.

How to Mould Fruits : 

Step :1  . Select the fruit or mould you want to shape , it should be in immature stage and smaller than the plastic mold. The mold is usually made of polycarbonate plastic.

Step :2  . Place the fruit in the plastic mould and then join the mold with proper screws and cover the mold . Care has to be taken that the crop is getting enough light and water.


Step :3  . Harvest the fruit once it has filled the mould completely , the crop has to be harvested at the right time or else it might result in breaking of the mould.

Step :4 . The crops placed in the molds have to be carefully observed for the right time of harvesting otherwise it might result in deformation of fruits or breaking of the moulds.

Monday, 14 November 2016

Rabbit Farming : Start with Thousands end in Lakhs

rabbit farming and  breeding , rabbit rearing
Unemployment is among one of the major issues faced by the youth of India , numerous young men are struggling hard to discover work while some are befuddled about picking what work they should do and some want to work freely. Well for these unemployed youths who want be self employed ,if they are interested in Agriculture allied sector , then Rabbit farming is a good opportunity , apart from finding an employment one can get decent income by raising Rabbit husbandry.
Rabbit farming is considered as a minor sector among all the other agriculture allied sectors , but the fact is that it has high investment conversion efficiency than other livestock activities .There is a greater scope for rabbit farming because unlike other livestock activities like Sheep or Goat rearing Rabbit farming does not require much investment and place . It can even be started with investment as low as 10,000 yet can yield lakhs if raised with suitable management techniques . It is a good source of additional income in the hilly regions where employment opportunities are limited. Rabbit meat contains very low cholesterol content hence it healthy and risk free and it is recommended by doctors for those people with high blood pressure and heart relate issues. Besides the meat preferred for its taste, tenderness and Juiciness. The multiplication ratio of rabbit eat is 1 : 4 to 5. A good healthy  female gives birth to 35 to 40 kits per year and the present day rate for rabbit meat ranges between Rs. 150 to 250. For this reason Rabbit farming is considered one of the most profitable sectors among all the other Allied sectors of Agriculture when viewed in a comparative manner since its not an input intensive activity. Apart from these the wool obtained from rabbits have various uses , there used to prepare decorative materials for houses and rabbit wool are 6 to 8 times warmer than sheep .The wool from Angora Rabbits is of very high quality and it's blending with carpet wool of sheep and silk improves the quality of woollen to a great extent and the wool is also  mixed with polyester, rayon, nylon, sheep wool and other fibers to make good quality hand looms as well as hand knitted apparels. Rabbits are the best producers of wool on per kg body weight basis. They require 30 % less digestible energy to produce one kg of wool as compared to sheep. All these advantages make Rabbit farming more preferable and profitable  compared to other Livestock activities.

Why should you take up Rabbit Farming :

  1. Initial investment for Rabbit farming is very low and Rabbits are suited to both small scale and large-scale commercial production and do not require much space and labor input when compared to other livestock activities . You can setup a Rabbit farm even in your backyard or garden according to your convenience .
  2. Rabbits can be fed with high forage, low grain diet that is largely non-competitive with human food and they have high feed conversion efficiency.
  3. Rabbit meat is a highly nutritious, tasty and excellent in quality. Meat is rich in protein, low in fat, cholesterol and sodium , it is also rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids and considered as white meat. Thus, can be recommended for cardiac patients .
  4. Rabbits are the best producers of wool on per kg body weight basis. They require 30 % less digestible energy to produce one kg of wool as compared to sheep and Rabbit wool is 6 to 8 times more warmer than Sheep wool hence there is a greater demand for Rabbit wool.
  5. Rabbits have high growth rates hence provides quick returns . Income can be expected within six months of setup.
  6. Apart from Meat and wool we can also derive additional income from selling the Kits and manure . Rabbit manure is highly suitable for Vermicomosting.

Loan Facilities for Rabbit Farming :

NABARD provides loans through banks for farmers who are interested in setting up Rabbit Farms . To avail loan from the bank the entrepreneur must submit a project report containing details about the land availability , water availability , breeds of animal , feed , technical and economic feasibility of the project , experience or the farmer. The Report must contain all these details in order to satisfy the eligibility criteria for sanction of loan. The cost incurred from initial setting of the farm till the point of income generation is covered under the loan except for the cost of the land. 
For more details visit the website : NABARD

How to Raise a successful Rabbit Farm 

1. Shelter : Rabbit rearing does not require much space unlike Sheep or Goat rearing , A small shed depending on the number of Rabbits can be built , Shelter is a very important factor that has to taken care in rabbit farming ,sheds can be built either in your backyard , in your garden or in your farm but it has to laid in a place with a lot of trees , shade , light, good drainage facility and most important of all the place must be quiet and away from people to ensure better growth of the Rabbits . The optimum temperature for rabbit farming is between 18 to 22 degree Celsius , and if the temperature exceeds 25 degree , then the growth of the rabbits will be hindered and thereby reducing the productive capacity of the farm. The optimum moisture required is 65 to 70. Fencing is recommended around the shed in order to prevent the intrusion of dogs , cats , snakes and other rodents which might be troublesome , Fencing can be done with the farm wastes like fallen sticks and hay to reduce the initial cost.

2. Feeding Habit : Rabbits are non ruminants and eat all types of grass (green grass , dry grass , hay ) , vegetables , sprouted seeds , pulses , carrot and even kitchen wastes but it is necessary to provide nutrient rich food like sprouted seeds , pulses and carrots and you can also feed concentrated food materials like soybean meal or peanut meal containing Protein - 13-18%, Digestible Energy - 8-13% and fibre - 8-18% to ensure better growth of the rabbits.

3. Breeding : The female rabbits are called Does and Male are called Bucks and rabbits will be ready for crossing within 6 to 7 months . The gestation period is 28 to 30 days .The pregnant doe must be well fed and protected in order to increase the milk yield . A healthy Doe gives birth to 7 to 8 kits in a single delivery and it conceives 4 to 5 times in a year producing 35 to 40 kits per year.

4. Breeds : There are roughly about 40 different breeds of Rabbits with distinct characteristics , many breeds are reared for meat while some breeds like Angora reared for wool so one most be careful about choosing the breeds considering the climate and other influencing factors.

Few Of the most Preferred Rabbit Breeds :

1. New zealand White : One of the best commercial breed can attain up to 5 kg.

2. Grey giant : Adult weighs 4.5 to 5 kg , it is bred for both meat and fur.

3. Chinchilla : Adults can weigh up to 5 kg , mainly reared for meat.

4. Angora : These are known to be the oldest rabbit breeds , they are mainly reared for their wool  and can weigh up to 3 kg and avg wool yield is 300g to 1000g.

4. Diseases : Most common diseases of Rabbits are Pasteurellosis , Pneumonia , salmonellosis ,enteritis and Snuffels . These diseases are mostly caused by the infection of micro organisms so as a preventive measure early vaccination to the rabbits is recommended , Buy good qulity breeds from a certified breeder , implement quarantine measures.

5. Marketing : Even though demand for rabbit meat and wool is increasing there is no proper marketing structure for rabbit farming , Since the meat has low cholesterol it is recommended by doctors to people with high blood pressure and heart related issues and also there is a greater demand for rabbit wool so certainly  Rabbit farming will gain more scope and demand in future.